Metabolic Surgery for Diabetes
Diabetes Mellitus is a long standing problem which either results from decreased production of insulin in the body or due to increased resistance to insulin in the body. It has emerged as an epidemic in almost all of the countries.
Diabetes has emerged as a major killer worldwide. It leads to major heart diseases, kidney failures, blindness and amputations. It presents as a major risk factor for people undergoing various surgeries.
Since type 2 diabetes is the major form of disease, the treatment involves lifestyle changes, dietary changes and certain drugs as well as insulin with weight loss. Despite of the best therapy and weight control, blood sugar levels usually keep fluctuating which results in damage at microvascular levels leading to damage to retina of the eyes, atherosclerosis, numbness in feet, heart diseases as well as kidney problems.
These days, metabolic Surgery for Diabetes has emerged as the most effective tool for complete cure of type 2 diabetes mellitus in about 80% of patients. It means that of all those who undergo metabolic surgery for diabetes, about 80% can nexpect a disease free life without any medicine. The remaining 20% can have a good control on fewer medicines and insulin in selected few. The benefits of metabolic surgery for diabetes are not only limited to control of blood sugar levels, scientific studies have proved that they may also stop and even reverse the microvascular changes due to diabetes mellitus. There have been studies conducted all over to prove the effectiveness of surgery.
Since Surgery for Diabetes is being done laparoscopically, it is a safe option in experienced hands. There are strict criteria underlined by International Diabetes Federation (IDF) to follow to choose the patients. Organisations that also favour the Surgery for Diabetes are- American Heart Association and The American Diabetes Association.
Since this procedure is done laparoscopically, the patient has few small wounds and he or she is fit to go home in a day or two. The procedures designed for control of diabetes are independent of the weight or BMI of the person since they are focussed at control of blood sugar rather than weight loss. Ileal interposition and duodenal - jejunal bypass are two such procedures aimed at correcting the hormonal imbalance in these diabetics. The mechanism of action is largely related to bypassing the food to lower part of the small intestines and release of certain gut hormones that act on the pancreas, on Insulin, its action on the tissues and also end organs. A few dietary restrictions are to be followed for initial few weeks, post which one can lead a normal and healthy life without being dependent on insulin shots!!